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paper

  • Guide to Choosing Paper

    Different Types of Paper and Their Use

    There are so many different papers available, and often they look quite similar. If you aren't sure what paper is the most suitable for your work, you might find this guide helpful.

    For a brief history of paper, click here 

    Paper sizes and Measurements

    The common sizing system in Europe is called ISO 216, where the paper's weight is expressed in grammes per square metre (gsm). The biggest unit is A0 (1189 x 841 mm).

    In the US, paper sizes are based on customary units. 

    There are seven main Paper categories:

    • Printing Papers
    • Wrapping papers
    • Writing papers
    • Drawing papers
    • Handmade papers
    • Specialty papers

    Pastel Paper

       

    (click on the pictures for more details!) 

     

    The best weight for pastel paper is at least 175 gsm, heavy cartridge or lightweight watercolour paper.

    For mixed media techniques, a rough-surface watercolour paper (that has been painted) still has enough tooth for soft pastels.


    There are many different papers that are suitable for pastels, from very coarse to very smooth. Ingres paper has a ‘laid’ effect, meaning that one side the grains produce fine liner while the other is slightly blotchy.

    The reason why there are a great selection of pre-coloured paper for pastels, is because pastels never really cover the whole surface, therefore leaving a few gaps (that aren’t shockingly white) is a standard use. Having a dominant coloured surface is also useful to determine the ‘atmosphere’ of the whole picture and create a unity of colours, as a deep reddish colour will give a warm tone, while blues are helpful to achieve a subtle, moody effect.

    Cartridge Paper

    • Generally used for drawing, but it’s also good with paint, pens and markers, as well as with pastels, crayons or inks.
    • It’s available in different weighs, depending on the used technique (heavier for paint, lighter for drawing)
    • it can also be used to make simple  models.

     

    Watercolour Paper

    There are three main weighs of watercolour paper:

    • 190gsm - 'student grade', as it's pretty lightweight, requires stretching, and can't endure lots of scrubbing
    • 300gsm - 'standard' type of paper, it takes paint ell, but still better to stretch to avoid buckling. dries quickly and medium priced.
    • 638gsm - it's almost like a board, therefore doesn't require stretching, but takes longer to dry.

     

     

    more about Watercolour paper: https://www1.iartsupplies.co.uk/blog/watercolour-paper-101

    Printmaking Paper

    Printmaking paper is specific to printmaking techniques, because it has to be able to take soaking, absorb ink, and take multiple runs through a press without disintegration or deformation.
    For this purpose, they are made with a so-called archival fabric, that means it contains cotton (in Europe) or mulberry bark (in Japan)

    Tracing Paper

    • thin, translucent paper
    • 60 - 90 gsm
    • it's used for making copies of drawings, or tracing a pencil sketch onto canvas for instance

    Recommended Videos:

    Selecting Art Paper

    Arches Printmaking Papers & How to Evaluate Your Paper

    Watercolor Paper Comparison - Arches, Fabriano and Canson - Beginners Which Paper to Choose?

    How to Pick Great Watercolor Paper

    References:

    • http://www.how-to-draw-and-paint.com/pastel-paper.html
    • http://www.dickblick.com/printmaking/papers/
    • https://rbms.info/vocabularies/paper/th343.htm
    • https://rubiks.ca/EN/resource-center/useful-printing-tips/26-american-paper-sizes--what-are-the-american-paper-sizes-how-to-convert-paper-sizes.html
    • http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/design/graphics/materialsandcomponentsrev1.shtml
    • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paper_size
    • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammage
  • Handmade Paper

     

    How To Make Your Own Paper?

    Want to recycle your spare printouts, write a special note, or just looking for a fun creative activity? Making paper on your own doesn't require professional knowledge, and you can't go wrong with it: the results are always going to be unique, and definitely gives a visually pleasing effect.

    A brief history of paper-making

    Paper-making began around 105 A.D. and was invented by the Chinese. It is said that Ts’ai Lung, an official of the Imperial Court made the first paper by using the fibres of mulberry tree bark. With this starting point people began experimenting, creating more and higher quality paper by adding rags and fish nets to the pulp. The method of paper making was kept a secret until the defeat of the T’ang dynasty by the Ottoman Empire. The method then spread to the Arabs from Chinese prisoners, who also began to guard the knowledge. In 10th century the Egyptians learnt the techniques from the Arabs and in Europe it was first introduced in Spain around 1150 A.D.

    In the UK, the first evidence of an existing paper mill was around 1495.

    What You Will Need

    • Water
    • Scrap paper
    • storage tub/ vat
    • blender
    • mould and deckle
    • Wood boards / sponge
    • towels

    Make Your Own 'Mould and Deckle'!

     

    [embed]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sU71fWKR0wg[/embed]

     

    DIY Paper - The Method

    Cut your scrap paper into small parts and soak it for at least a few hours
    Fill up a blender with water, or use a mortar to create a pulp.

     

    Fill the tub with the pulp, and add more water – the more pulp you add, the thicker the paper will be.

    Get the Mould and Deckle, and place it in the water (mould screen up, deckle on top). Shake it a bit when you lift it out. The next step is called couching (pronounced “coo-ching”) when you transfer the sheet to a flat, absorbent surface. Then remove the deckle, gently place the mould face down on the surface, press down and lift it up.

    If you don't mind the uneven edges, or don't have access to Mould and Deckle, you can also use a roller to for the sheets.

    You can dry the finished sheet in different ways. You can place the sheets on a wood board or glass, and just leave it to dry. You can also place the sheets together (with an absorbent surface in between), put a wood board on top then weigh it down with something heavy.

    Customise Your Paper!

    When you have learnt the basics, it's time to experiment!
    Try adding different colour dyes to your pulp to create coloured paper. You can also try adding pressed flowers and plants to your paper while it's still wet.

    Videos:

    References:

    • http://paperslurry.com/2014/05/19/how-to-make-handmade-paper-from-recycled-materials/
    • http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-Make-Handmade-Paper/
    • http://www.silk-road.com/artl/papermaking.shtml
    • http://baph.org.uk/ukpaperhistory.html

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